F.A.Qs.  For Lada Niva

There are no hard and fast answers to most of these questions. No matter what you are told by one owner another will tell you something else. If anyone disagrees with or would like to add to the answers I have here they should just write down the correct answer ( make it as short and direct as possible ) send it to me and I’ll be very happy to post it to the list.

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              These Answers are NOT necessarily as per the workshop manual and I am NOT a licensed mechanic !

They are only intended to give you some vague idea as to how to overcome a problem or to satisfy your curiosity.

I suggest you consult a licensed mechanic or official workshop manual before carrying out any work on your vehicle.

1. I am planning on buying a Lada Niva. What should I look for.... ?

For a comprehensive check list click here

a. Normally check the same as for any vehicle.

b. The main problem areas for Niva are;

    1. Rust

    2. Gearbox

    3. Gearbox / Transfer case alignment

   4.  Electrical Problems ( mainly loose fuses )

   5. Cabin Heater shutoff valve.

There are other things listed in the comprehensive list but the above seem to be the most re-occuring problems mention on the group discussion lists.


2. What Kind of Fuel Consumption can I expect .........?

A. How long is a piece of string ????? This can vary so much that I’m hardly game to try to answer it ! about 10L per 100klms would be about average on the highway. Some get more, some get less. Off road ? well just take a few spare jerry cans ! It’s better to measure in litres ( or gallons ) per hour !

3. What size tyres & wheels fit the Niva......................?

Niva comes with 16" wheels, 6.95 X16 tyres, unless fitted with special 15" wheels such as the Cossack, Toro and a few others. Every owner has a different opinion on which wheels are the best ! The Suzuki, F150 Ford, and some other 15" are OK, BUT you must be aware of the offset ! Personal experience tells me that the Suzuki Vitara wheels do fit and look OK but the offset is way wide ! makes steering very heavy and could be hard on wheel bearings. Also there is the LAW to consider ! Different laws for different countries. BWA make a very good 15" wheel if you can find them. If you go to 15" tyres look around till you find a tyre that is as close to the same circumference as the original 16" so as not to upset the reading of the speedometer and the gearing. Also so they don’t rub on the wheel arches.


4. Do all Nivas vibrate...................................................?

     A.    NO !!!!! No Nivas should vibrate !!! However, due to poor alignment of the gearbox, transfer case and rear axle most DO give off varying degrees of vibration. This CAN be prevented or at least minimised !

5. How do I stop the vibrations ..........................................?

     A.   Hey !        I thought YOU could tell ME !!    Here is a look at the correct alignment    I'll add some methods of how to                               achieve it when I get time.

6. What sort of speeds can I expect from my Niva ...........?

   A.    Just ask each owner !  They each have the fastest Niva out there !    Officially  ............. 137kph  !!!!!!!

        If it is worked out mathamatically a standard Niva with standard gear & tyres CANNOT go faster than 137 kph.

 "My 1987 Niva with a close to dead 1.6 also managed to get up to 140+ on a good day, on a flat  road. But, potholes, undulations in the road and inclines higher than 1 degree drop the speed drastically."               Reece Hoffmann

" I have a 92 EFI Toro. It cruises well on 110 Km/h +, even on LPG. I've managed the top speed of  137 km/h with little effort."  Roger Schulz;

      Basically, you should be able to cruise comfortably at around 110kph ( 65-70 mph ) BUT, speed drops off fast with the         slightest incline. These vehicles were built for OFF-ROAD work. If you want to travel fast,   go look up Porsche !

7. Can I remove the Rubber Doughnut ( Intermediate Drive shaft ) without removing the transfer case................. ?

A     The " Doughnut " and joint ( CV or Universal ) CAN be removed without taking off the transfer case. You need to fit a 6" hose clamp around the rubber ring before you undo the bolts ! Otherwise you can’t slip the bolts out ! Mark exactly where the T/C is positioned ( spray some paint around it's housing ) so you can get it aligned correctly when you refit it ! Simply loosen the transfer case ( T/C ) mounting bolts then undo the four bolts that attach the joint to the transfer case, slide the T/C back just a little, then undo the three large bolts that hold the " doughnut " to the gearbox. If you have the hose clamp in place and tight, the bolts should slip out easily. The whole unit should now fall out !! Ha ha !! Remember ! it is mandatory to lose the skin off at least four knuckles while carrying out this job !  Before you put the coupling back in make sure that large nut at the end of the gearbox shaft is tight ! Then all you need to do is realign the T/C so you don’t get vibrations ! Oh what fun !

8. Has anyone ever welded the spidergears together

in their Niva (for permanent off-road use only of course) to make a "it's locked all-right" diff?

A. "Yes you can weld up your rear diff and not worry about breaking the axles.....its the pinion gear that normally breaks first I quite often break front inner driveshafts on the spline in the diff this happens usually when one wheel is in the air spinning & suddenly gets contact with the ground giving the axle a big "shock" with your rear diff welded you can still drive on the road quite happily just be a bit more careful driving round sharp corners in the wet."

Simon,  Auckland NZ

Warning !!!   If you live in Australia and you have a crash, you can kiss your insurance goodbye if you do this !! Please let me know when you will be on the road..... so I can get OFF IT !!!!!!!

9. Which diesel Engine can I use in a Lada Niva .............. ??

A. It seems there are several different types of Diesel engine that can be fitted to a Niva with minimum fuss. Most popular in South America seems to be the VW 1600 from the MkII Golf. Toyota is also popular and Izuzu, even the old Peugeot 1905 indirect injection.

If you know of any others and the type numbers please let me know so I can list it here.


10. Can I fit a 2ltre engine to my Niva................... ?

A. Yes ! Check out this site http://homepages.paradise.net.nz/~cloggy/

      He has recently fitted a Fiat engine and can show you what is involved.


11. Can I fit a Diff. Lock to my Niva .................????

I have been in DIRECT contact with Powertrax (the makers of the Lock-Right) over the past 18 Months. No other differential that they produce directly interchanges with Lada. They did agree that one COULD be produced for the Niva, but the only catch is a 100 unit minimum order would be needed to start production, and they would want 50% of the money UP FRONT before they would do it. The price would be between $250 and $300 US, depending on final production cost. Fiat 124 centre sections are a direct bolt in (I have tried this); Fiat offered a limited slip diff, if you can find one. A Locking Diff was available & manufactured in Australia, but This unit is no longer available. Try contacting the Aussies to find one.

Gavin Warren.  Lada Owners Club Canada.


12. Can I fit Power Steering to my Niva............. ???

A. Much the same as for the Diff Locks. Power steer units were made in Europe but were for the left hand drive. Some-one was going to produce them for RHD but the minimum order was 1500 units ! I believe several owners have fitted a Toyota unit without too much fuss. Not sure of the model it comes from at this stage ( can some-one let me know ? )

13. Can I put my Niva on higher springs ( about 4cm.)

Would the axles break much easier ?

A." Ride hight can have a major effect on braking and steering stability. I have Monroe air shocks on the rear of my Niva ute. Used correctly when there's a fair weight on the rear they keep you from bottoming out. If you pump them up to 80-90 psi you can get about 3 - 4 inch lift. More than what I'd recommend as the shockers are pretty solid and not doing their job. A side effect of this extra height is that if you break hard the front dips and the car veers to the right. This is caused by the set up of the panhard rod in the rear axle. The ideal suspension setup is where the panhard rod is as nearly parallel to the rear axel. If you do not lengthen the support bracket on the panhard rod so that you keep this near horizontal position hard braking will cause the rear axle to lose alignment causing the Niva to veer to the right. The greater the lift the more misalignment occurs and more sudden the the veer.  Having solid shockers didn't help me, but when I slammed on the brakes to avoid running into the rear of a suddenly stopped line of traffic my Niva entered a spin to the right onto the grass median strip. (The car behind me rearended the car in front of me). Other than having to go home to change my jeans I got off Scott free, but I haven't driven at speed with the shockers pumped up fully. Be careful with major suspension changes as they can build in unexpected consequences."

Paul.   Melbourne

"From an engineering point of view, the only mechanical stress involved in raising the suspension will be on any universal joints as they will be working at a more acute angle than what they were designed for. This will also apply to the wishbones and any other 'moving part' that has an altered angle. The only reason (that I can see) for an increase in axle breakages is that, with the improved ground clearance, drivers are able to attempt terrain that would be otherwise inaccessible due to height restrictions......thereby putting all components of the drive train under greater stresses. My personal feelings are to leave 'lifting' the vehicle alone unless you have 'deep pockets' and 'bottomless bank balance'.Slightly improved ground clearance can be gained by looking at wheel and tyre size......for example, I have fitted 205R16 tyres to my Niva and gained (just) over 1 inch extra clearance without affecting any drive train angles."



14. How deep can a Niva go.............??????

A. Well that depends a) on your Niva and b) on how wet you want to get.

a) "You can equip your Niva and make it go really deep (as I have done). You need a snorkel to the air intake, a valve on the exhaust or a second snorkel and really good sealing of in-hood electric's. I use gloves for that right now although I have made some plastic covers. Keep in mind that even cables need sealing. At the sparkplugs there are holes to let pressure come out. If you seal those the cables might pop out. I used a piece of tape with some silicon making something like a primitive one way valve. If you don't do all that you should know that you can get the exhaust in water as long as you have the motor running and you should never let water reach the intake. A common problem with offroaders is that the engine stops not from the depth of water but from the splash the entrance to water or a sudden stop-and-run causes. Cover the front and the hood with something waterproof, move with a steady speed creating a small (and I mean SMALL) wave in front of the car and you'll be ok. avoid turning around and manoeuvring in water. And now for the second part."

b) "How wet can you get?? Keep in mind that the Niva will never get a waterproof interior. This is good and bad. It is good because you get better traction when water comes in. But it is really bad as water can destroy anything and get you wet. There are some ways to seal various parts but water will be coming from everywhere. Anyway that doesn't limit the capability of the car but of the driver."


"Just a few more things to add to Jason's comments. It pays to replace the breather caps on the diffs, transfer case and gearbox with hoses routed to places where the water will (or should) never reach. This is to prevent water from being sucked past the seals as the air in the warm gear housings contracts after being dunked in cold water. Before crossing deep water slacken off the fanbelt so it can slip. The reason for this is (not so important on a Niva with plastic fanblades) to prevent the fanblades from bending forward when submerged in water and contacting and possibly cutting through the radiator core. Also expect more frequent alternator and starter motor rebuilds as these units are not designed to be operated under water. Apart from that the real limit to how deep you can go is keeping the spark going to the plugs and keep water out of the airfilter.

Lada specifies a maximum fording depth of 0.5 meters on a stock standard Niva."



15. Can I fit a Larger Fuel Tank ............????

A. Several owners have successfully fitted larger tanks. One is from a Datsun 1600. The exhaust has to be re-routed to make up the space available and an external filler installed.

"There's a number of other Long range tanks in use in the club up to $700ish Brown Davis custom made tanks. One option I like is using a efi tank out of a Mazda 121 which has its own internal pressure pump. You hook the additional tank up to your existing one and when the main tank is empty you top it up from the rear tank by running the pump. This is a lot less complicated than getting the existing fuel pump to switch from tank to tank. You may wish to be careful on the size of the tank. Much more than 45lt that far to the rear of the Niva must have some serious balance and steering issues to be provided for."

Paul .      Melbourne


Still under construction more to come !

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Trouble Shooting

Vaz - 21213

This section is for those who don't have a workshop manual.  I will add more to it as time goes on, if you feel it is needed.

These instructions are verbatim from the workshop manual so don't argue with me !  Tell it to AutoVaz !


The art of good Trouble Shooting is to follow a process of elimination, methodically.

1.  Engine

a.  Engine fails to start. 

Cause                                                                                                         Remedy

1. No fuel in carburettor - fuel pipes or filter clogged.                                            Wash fuel pipes, wash fuel tank, replace filter.

    Fuel filters of carburettor and/or fuel pump clogged                                         Wash filters

    Defective fuel pump                                                                                                  Check operation of pump & replace defective parts

2. Defective Ignition System                                                                                         See  "Ignition System"

3. With ignition ON carburettor electromagnetic valve fails to open.                  

     Torn off wires laid to control unit or valve                                                          Check wires and connections, replace defective wires

     Defective control unit                                                                                               Replace control unit

4. Carburettor choke valve fails to open when engine starts firing                        Eliminate trouble in carburettor cold stating unit

Engine Runs Erratically or Stalls at Idle

1. Disturbed idling adjustment                                                                                      Adjust Idle speed

2. Defective control system of carburettor electromagnetic valve                        See " engine fails to start "

3. Carburettor faulty;   carburettor jets or channels blocked                                   airblast jets and channels

     water in carburettor                                                                                                    remove water from carburettor, suck out sediment from fuel                                                                                                                                              tank

     leaky diaphragm of cold starting unit                                                                       replace diaphragm

4. Ignition System faulty                                                                                                  see " Ignition System " chapter

5. Air leakage through damaged hose connecting intake manifold                                                                                                                                          with brake vacuum booster.                                                                                          Replace damaged hose.

6. Air leakage in connections of intake manifold with carburettor                                                                                                                                         or cylinder head                                                                                                               Tighten up nuts or replace gaskets, eliminate deformation or                                                                                                                                               caburettor flange or replace carburettor.

7. Air leakage through damaged tube along which vacuum is fed to                                                                                                                              vacuum spark timer of ignition distributor                                                                   Replace damaged tube

Engine Lacks Power & Pickup

1. Carburettor throttle valve open incompletely                                                        Adjust throttle valve control linkage

2. Air cleaner clogged                                                                                                      Replace cleaner element

3. Ignition System faulty                                                                                                  see " ignition system " chapter

4. Fuel Pump faulty                                                                                                           Check pump performance and replace damaged parts

5. Carburettor faulty:   acceleration pump defective                                                   check pump capacity, replace faulty parts                                    main jets clogged                                                                                                                airblast jets                                                                                   choke valve opens incompletely                                                                                     Adjust choke valve linkage.                                                          wrong fuel level in float chamber                                                                                   Adjust float level setting                                                              defective diaphragm of power duty economizer                                                         replace diaphragm

6. Choked vent tube of fuel tank                                                                                     Blow through the tube with compressed air

7. Wrong valve clearances                                                                                                 Adjust clearances

8. Timing phase marks out of alignment                                                                          Change position of chain to align marks

9. Compression below 1MPa ( 10kgf/cm2 )  :                                                                                                                                                                         broken or sticking piston rings                                                                                          Clean rings and piston grooves from carbon, replace damaged                                                                                                                                                   parts                                                                                                 poor seating of valves                                                                                                          grind seats                                                                                   badly worn cylinders and piston rings                                                                               replace pistons, rebore and hone cylinders


Crankshaft Main Bearing Knock

As a rule this knocking,   of a dull metallic nature, is detected when the throttle valve is sharply opened at idle speed. Its frequency grows with an increase in crankshaft speed. Excessive crankshaft end play causes a sharper sound with uneven intervals most conspicuous during gradual throttle up and down.

1. Early ignition                                                                                                                    Adjust ignition timing

2. oil pressure too low                                                                                                        see " oil pressure too low at idle speed "

3. Loosening of flywheel bolts                                                                                           Tighten up to specified torque

4. Excessive clearance between thrust halfrings and crankshaft                                    Replace thrust halfrings by new, thicker ones

5. Excessive clearance between main journals and their bearing shells.                      Grind journals and replace shells

Big-End Bearing Knock  

Usually knocking of big-end bearings is sharper than that of the main bearings. It is heard at engine idling speed when the throttle valve is sharply opened. The origin of knocking can be easily identified by disconnecting spark plugs one after the other.

1. Insufficient Oil pressure                                                                                                  see " Oil pressure too low at idling speed "

2. Excessive clearance between big-end journals and shells                                          Grind journals and replace shells.

Piston Slap

As a rule it is a dull knocking caused by slackness of piston in the cylinder. It is best audible at a low engine speed and under a load.

1. Excessive piston-to-cylinder clearance                                                                         Replace pistons, rebore and hone cylinders

2. Excessive piston ring-to-groove clearance                                                                   Replace rings or pistons with rings

Intake and Exhaust Valve Knock

Excessive clearances in valve gear cause characteristic knock, usually with regular intervals. Knocking frequency is less than that of any other engine knock, since the valves are operated by the camshaft which rotates at half the crankshaft speed.

1. Excessive valve-to-rocker clearance                                                                              Adjust clearance

2. Valve spring broken                                                                                                        Replace spring

3. Excessive clearance between valve stem and guide                                                  Replace worn parts

4. Wear of camshaft cams                                                                                                   Replace camshaft and valve rockers

5. Loosening of adjustment bolt locknut                                                                           Adjust valve rocker-to-cam clearance and tighten locknut

Camshaft Drive Chain Noise

The camshaft drive chain noise becomes noticeable against the background of general engine noise in case of excessive clearance between the chain and sprockets and it is particularly loud at low engine speed.

1. Chain becomes slack because of wear                                                                         Tighten up chain

2. Chain tensioner shoe or damper broken                                                                      Replace tensioner shoe or damper

3. Chain tensioner plunger rod jamming                                                                           Eliminate jamming

Oil Pressure too Low in Warm Engine at Idling Speed

1. Foreign matter getting under reducing valve of oil pump                                       Clean valve of foreign matter and burrs, wash oil pump

2. Oil pump gears worn                                                                                                     Repair Oil pump

3. Excessive clearance between crankshaft main journals and bearing shells            Grind journals and replace shells

4. Excessive clearance between camshaft journals and bearing housing                    Replace camshaft or bearing housing

5. Use of engine oil of poor quality or no-recommended grade.                                 Replace oil with that recommended

Oil Pressure too High in Warm Engine

1. Oil pressure reducing valve jamming                                                                           Replace valve

2. Excessive rigidity of oil pressure reducing valve spring                                           Replace spring

Excessive Oil Consumption

1. Oil leakage through engine seals                                                                                  Tighten fastenings or replace gaskets and glands

2. Choked-up crankcase breathing system                                                                      Wash parts of crankcase breathing system

3. Wear of piston rings or cylinders                                                                                  Rebore cylinders and replace pistons and rings

4. Broken piston rings                                                                                                         Replace rings

5. Gummed slots in oil control rings or cut-outs in piston grooves                                                                                                                                  caused by use of oil of non-recommended grade                                                          Remove carbon from slots and cut-outs, use recommended oil

6. Valve oil-deflecting caps worn or damaged                                                                Replace caps

7. Heavy wear of valve stems or guides                                                                           Replace valves, repair cylinder head.

Excessive Fuel Consumption

1. Choke valve fails to open completely                                                                           Adjust choke valve linkage

2. High resistance to car motion                                                                                          Check and adjust tyre pressure, brake system, front wheel                                                                                                                                                    alignment

3. Wrong ignition timing                                                                                                       Adjust ignition timing

4. Ignition Distributor vacuum spark timer faulty                                                        Replace vacuum timer or ignition distributor

5. Carburettor fuel level too high;                                                                                                                                                                                 carburettor needle valve or its gasket leaky                                                                    look for foreign particles between valve seat and needle                                                                                                                                                  replace gasket or valve, if necessary.                                        jamming or friction interfering with normal motion of floats                                       Examine floats and replace them if necessary.

6. Carburettor air jets clogged.                                                                                          Clean jets.

7. Disturbed tightness of diaphragm of carburettor power duty economizer           Replace diaphragm

8. Weak spring of power duty economiser                                                                         Replace spring

9. Carburettor electromagnetic valve fails to cut off fuel delivery at forced               Clean contact surfaces of switch                                                idling;   movable contact of limit switch in carburettor fails to                                                                                                                                       connect to ground  ;  open circuit fault in wire connecting  control unit with                                                                                                         carburettor limit switch                                                                                                          Check wire and it's connections, replace damaged wire.           Defective control unit                                                                                                     Replace control unit.

Engine Overheats

Pointer of coolant temperature gauge is in red zone of scale. Prior to trouble shooting check coolant temperature gauge and its transmitter for good repair.

1. Slackening of pump and alternator drive belt                                                                     Adjust belt tension

2. Lack of coolant in cooling system                                                                                          Add coolant into cooling system

3. Wrong ignition timing                                                                                                               Adjust ignition timing

4. Radiator heavily soiled on outside                                                                                         Clean radiator with jet of water

5. Thermostat faulty                                                                                                                        Replace thermostat

6. Defective valve in radiator cap ( opening pressure below 0.07MPa ( 0.7kgf/cm2 ))        Replace cap

7. Coolant pump faulty                                                                                                                    Check , replace or repair coolant pump

Rapid Drop of Coolant Level in Expansion Tank

1. Radiator damaged                                                                                                                       Replace or repair radiator

2. Damaged hoses or pipe joint gaskets, loose clamps                                                               Replace damaged hoses or gaskets, tighten up clamps

3. Coolant leaking from heater cock or heater radiator                                                             Replace cock or heater radiator

4. Coolant leaks through coolant pump gland                                                                              Replace gland

5. Radiator cap or its gasket damaged                                                                                             Replace cap

6. Cylinder head gasket damaged                                                                                                     Replace gasket

7. Leakage of coolant through microcracks in cylinder block or head                                      Check cylinder block and head for leakage of coolant,                                                                                                                                                                 if cracks are detected replace defective parts

8. Leakage of coolant through microcracks in coolant pump body,                                                                                                                                 cooling jacket outlet connection, expansion tank or intake manifold.                                        Check for coolant leakage, if cracks are detected,                                                                                                                                                                   replace damaged parts, minor leaks may be                                                                                                                                                                   eliminated by type HNNC-1 stopleak into coolant


Power Train

Clutch Drags

Cause                                                                                                       Remedy

1.  Excessive clearance in clutch control mechanism                                                               Adjust Clutch control mechanism

2. Warpage of driven disc ( face runout over 0.5mm )                                                             Straighten or replace disc                                                

3. Roughness of driven disc facings                                                                                             Replace facings or driven disc assembly

4. Loosening of rivets or breaking of driven disc facings                                                         Replace facings, check end runout of disc

5. Jamming or driven disc hub on gearbox clutch shaft splines                                             Clean splines and coat them with grease. If jamming is                                                                                                                                                               caused by mutilation or wear of splines replace clutch                                                                                                                                                               shaft or driven disc.

6. Breaking of plates connecting thrust flange with clutch cover.                                          Replace clutch cover complete with pressure plate

7. Air in hydraulic system                                                                                                               Bleed hydraulic system

8. Fluid leaks from joints or damaged pipes of hydraulic system                                             Tighten joints, replace damaged parts, bleed hydraulic                                                                                                                                                               system  

9. Fluid leaks from master or operating cylinder                                                                         Replace sealing rings, bleed system

10. Clogging of hole in reservoir cover which causes depression in master                           Clean up hole in reservoir cover, bleed system                cylinder and infiltration or air into cylinder through seals  

11. Poor tightness caused by soiling or wear of master cylinder front sealing ring               Clean sealing ring or  replace if worn    

12. Warpage or skewness of pressure plate                                                                                  Replace clutch cover complete with pressure plate


Clutch Slips       

1.  No clearance in clutch control mechanism                                                                            Adjust clutch control mechanism

2.  Heavy wear or burning of driven disc facings                                                                      Replace friction facings or driven disc assembly

3.  Oiling of driven disc facings, flywheel and pressure plate surfaces                                   Wash oiled surfaces, eliminate cause of oiling

4. Clogging of master cylinder compensating hole                                                                     Wash cylinder, clean up compensating hole

5.  Clutch control mechanism damaged or jammed                                                                   Eliminate faults that cause jamming.


Jerky Engagement of   Clutch.

1.  Driven disc hub seized on clutch shaft splines.                                                              Clean splines, lubricate them with grease. If                                                                                                                                                        seizure is caused  by mutilation or wear of splines,                                                                                                                                                        replace clutch shaft or driven disc.

2. Oiling of driven disc facings, flywheel and pressure plate surfaces                            Wash oiled surfaces carefully with white spirit and                                                                                                                                                       eliminate cause of oiling.

3. Jamming in clutch control mechanism                                                                             Replace distorted parts. Eliminate cause of                                                                                                                                                       jamming.

4. Heavy wear of driven disc friction facings                                                                       Replace facing with new ones, check condition                                                                                                                                                       of disc surface.

5. Loosening of driven disc facing rivets                                                                             Replace faulty rivets and if necessary, facings

6. Pressure plate warped or it's surfaces damaged                                                             Replace clutch cover complete with pressure plate.

Noisy Clutch Disengagement

1.  Breaking or loss of resilience of driven disc damper springs.                                       Replace driven disc assembly

2.  Clutch release yoke return spring broken, lost it's resilience                                         Fasten spring as required or replace by new one

3.  Breaking of plates connecting pressure plate with cover                                                Replace clutch cover complete with pressure plate.

Transfer Case

Vibration of Transfer Case and Body Floor ( in front seat area ) at Starting from Rest and Acceleration to 80 km/h

  Cause                                                                                                                                               Remedy

1.  Misalignment of transfer case relative to engine unit.                                                     Align Transfer case

2.  Loose or damaged supports of transfer case or rear supports of engine unit.              Tighten attachment nuts and bolts or replace supports.

3.  Stiff turning or binding in one of planes of front or rear propeller shaft joints.          Repair universal joints or replace shafts assembly.

4.  Incomplete release of parking brake.                                                                                  Adjust parking brake.

5.  Stiff turning of constant velocity universal joint of intermediate                              Check condition of boot and joint. If joint parts are                                                                                                                                                           damaged, replace joint                                                              propeller shaft. 

Vibration of Transfer Case and Body Floor ( in front seat area ) in Motion. ( especially at 80 - 90km/h )

1.  Propeller shafts out of balance                                                                                     Replace or repair  propeller shaft.

2.  Centre differential out of balance                                                                              Replace or repair  centre differential

3.  Binding in universal joints of front or rear propeller shafts                                     Repair universal joints or replace propeller shafts in assembly

4.  Binding of constant velocity universal joint of intermediate propeller shaft         Check condition of boot and joint. If parts are damaged,                                                                                                                                                    replace them

5.  Loose bolts and nuts of engine mounts or defective engine mounts                       Tighten up bolts and nuts or replace engine mounts

6.  Bending of bolts and flexible coupling flange of intermediate shaft                         Replace bolts or intermediate shaft

Noise on Turns or During Slipping of Wheels

1.  Difficult rotation of differential pinions on shaft                                                            Replace damaged or worn parts

2.  Jamming of axle drive gears in differential housing                                                       Replace worn or damaged parts

3.  Damaged working surface of pinions                                                                               Replace worn or damaged parts.

4.  Excessive end play of axle drive gears in differential housing                                     Set a clearance of  0 - 0.10 mm with adjusting shims.

Difficult   Gearshifting or Differential Locking

1. Sleeve jammed on splines of hub or differential housing.                                             Dress off any burrs, nicks or scores, replace defective parts

2. Nicks on teeth of smaller rim of high or low speed gears,  also on teeth                    Dress off any nicks or burrs,  replace faulty parts                     of sleeves  and on splines of front axle drive shaft

3.  Bent fork or shift bar                                                                                                          Straighten distorted parts

4.  Distortion of transfer case control levers                                                                       Straighten levers or replace them by new ones, if necessary

5.  Jamming of control levers on axles                                                                                  Remove levers, clean axles and bushings. replace faulty                                                                                                                                                       parts


Uncontrollable Disengagement of Gears or Differential Lock.

1.  Wear of gear and sleeve teeth.                                                                                           Replace worn parts

2. Detent springs lost their resilience or it's parts heavily worn                                         Replace springs or worn parts

3. Incomplete engagement of gears and differential lock caused by distortion                 Straighten or replace distorted parts, dress down nicks and                                                                                                                                                         burrs, replace defective parts                                                    of control parts or nicks on gears, sleeves and splines.

Leakage of Oil

1.  Sealing gaskets damaged                                                                                                        Replace gaskets

2.  Loosening of cover-to-housing nuts and studs                                                                  Tighten up nuts and studs at places of leakage

3.  Shaft glands worn or damaged                                                                                               Replace glands

4.  Worn sealing rings of transfer case shift bars                                                                        Replace sealing rings


Method of Detecting Causes of Vibration of Transfer Case and Body Floor ( in front seat area )


First of all note the speed at which the vibration of the transfer case appears and then proceed to detect it's cause.

Test No. 1

Set the transfer case and gearbox levers in neutral and start the engine.  Raise the crankshaft speed   to the value corresponding to the car speed at which the vibration appears ( ie.   same number of revs on Tachometer )

If Vibration appears on the motionless car, check attachment and condition of the engine mounts as they cause the vibration.

Test No. 2

If test No. 1 does not reveal vibration, set the transfer case levers in neutral, start the engine, shift into direct drive in the gearbox and set the crankshaft speed corresponding to the car speed at which the vibration of the transfer case appears.

If vibration is detected on the motionless car, it's cause is a defect in the intermediate propeller shaft. ( unbalance, bending of the bolts or flange of the flexible coupling,  jamming in the constant-velocity universal joint ).

Test No. 3

If tests No. 1 & 2 do not reveal vibration, proceed with test No. 3.   For this purpose, race the car to the speed at which vibration is detected and set the transfer case and gearbox levers in neutral.  If vibration persists, the cause of trouble is a defect in the front or rear propeller shafts ( unbalance, jamming of the universal joints ) or unbalance of the centre differential.

To Install and Align the Transfer Case

Make sure that the engine mount pads are properly installed in the brackets ( the centring washers of the front mount pads of the engine should get into the respective holes in the side brackets ) and the transfer case mounts tightly fit the body bottom.  If necessary, straighten the surface of the body under the mounts.

Mount the transfer case in the car without tightening completely the the transfer case mount bracket nuts 4 & 5   .

  tcase02.jpg (154584 bytes)

Shifting the transfer case along and across the body and in the vertical plane, find the position in which the flanges of the transfer case driveshaft and the intermediate propeller shaft at one level and parallel, with a minimum clearance in between; the shafts of the transfer case should be parallel to the body bottom;

Having installed previously removed adjusting shims under the brackets, tighten completely the transfer case bracket nuts.

Connect the front and rear propeller shafts to the transfer case shafts; connect the flexible shaft to the speedometer drive and fasten the wires to the transmitter of the differential lock warning light.

When replacing the transfer case and also in case of sagging of the engine rear mount which causes vibration of the transfer case, select adjusting shims of a required thickness and install them in place. To select the shims proceed as follows; Make sure the engine mount pads are installed correctly in the brackets; separate the flanges of the transfer case drive shaft and the intermediate propeller shaft;  loosen the nuts holding the transfer case mounts to the body, remove adjusting shims and, shifting the transfer case along and across the body in the vertical plane, fine the position of the transfer case in which the disconnected flanges are at one level and in parallel with each other and the clearance between the flanges is minimum and the transfer case shafts are parallel to the car bottom; fill up the clearance between the body floor and the supports with the required number of shims;  align the centring bolts of the flanges, taking care to prevent interference in the transfer case and engine mounts and holding the transfer case in this position, tighten up the previously backed off nuts of the transfer case mounts;  

Insert and tighten the bolts of the transfer case and intermediate shaft flanges; if the bolts freely pass into the flange holes, the alignment is correct; otherwise, repeat the flange alignment operation.

Gear Box                                                                      Diagrams 1   2


Coming soon !!!!!


Fuel Injection System for 21214

Unfortunately the conversion from Russian to English leaves a lot to be desired.

However you can still get the guts of it.


Advantages of injection

In the first:

Three vanish "?" (I so name it) - ??????, Having warmed up, the Failure.

Absence of these "?" practically is not noticed, but when it is possible to pass by the usual (carburettor) machine at once you understand in the winter. Sensation such, as though it to explain, well as though the board from the TV has lost...


In the second:

????????? practically to zero of a problem with start-up - it is well got(started) in any weather (besides in the winter it very actually in our country)


In the third:

There are no details which move, clog, and in which water (including ???????? is actually enough off-road) etc gets. Besides two ignition coils, reliable and simple system of injection (GM or Bosch, and some abuse "January"!), plus system of a self-diagnosis.


In the twelfth:

Work of the motor on bottoms softer.


And the last

But not unimportant - appreciablly big opportunity of protection against stealing (additional points of a blockage)


Minuses too are, but in my opinion non-comparable to pluss:

1. ?????????? the lead-free fuel is necessary for the machine ("January" the Soviet variant of "brains" just and learned(taught) there is a leaded fuel. But as shows experience a leaded fuel harmful not only ?????? oxygen, and business not only and not is so much in ??????????????? gasoline, how many in his(its) quality.
Even in the big cities where problems with gasoline be careful less.

2. Higher qualification of those who serves (?.?. The owner)
I try it to correct publishing the information on injection. But time will take the - you see of switchboards on "eights" too at first were afraid...

3. Higher cost of specific spare parts and their smaller prevalence.
Pleases, that they on the order it is more reliable, and due to system of a self-diagnosis failure first at once is found out, second the automobile(car) can ??????????? only the gauge of position of a bent shaft...

4. Less interesting (all works also)
Yes the Field is an automobile(a car) of PRESENT ?????, but it is possible to step in the qualification ABOVE...


On ?????????? to the machine to go better - believe me...

On the automobile(car) the VAZ - 21214 is established the engine of model the VAZ - 21214 with the central injection of fuel.

The general(common) principle of construction of a feed system with the central injection of fuel

Basis of the device of system with the central injection of fuel is the electronic control package (???; In technical literature ??? frequently call the controller) with ????????????? the head (hydraulic unit). ??? represents the microcomputer with rigidly given program on steering of work of the engine on all modes of operation. Problem(task) ??? includes continuous processing of the acting information while in service from gauges on the given algorithm of steering and distribution of managing signals (commands((teams)) on executive elements of an engine management for maintenance of optimum parameters of movement of the automobile(car) (a fuel consumption, power, toxicity ??) depending on service conditions.


????????????? the head (hydraulic unit) replaces the carburetor and represents electromagnetic ????????????? the valve with a pressure regulator of fuel. Distribution of a working blend on separate cylinders

It is carried out on a warmed intake manifold, as well as at setting the carburetor.

On ??? acts and the following information is processed:
- About position of a throttle valve, 9 (loading);
- About a rotary speed of a bent shaft of the engine, 14;
- About temperature of acting air, 6;
- About a temperature mode of the engine, 13;
- About the maintenance(contents) of oxygen in ??, 12;
- About a pressure(voltage) in an onboard network of the automobile(car), 15.


Fuel delivery

Fuel from a tank 1, due to the electric pump 2, through a fuel filter 3 moves to central ?????????????? to the block which consists of the case of a throttle valve and hydraulic unit. The hydraulic unit consists from electromagnetic ?????????????? the valve 5 and a pressure regulator of fuel 4 which supports constant pressure in a point of a supply of fuel to a spray jet ?????????????? the valve irrespective of amount of injected fuel.


Gauging of parameters

The gauges established on the engine, remove from it all basic operational parameters about their drives in ???. The system of ignition forms a signal about the valid rotary speed of a bent shaft of the engine.

The operating mode (??????????) is set to the engine by means of opening a throttle valve with use of a pedal of gas. At present time the required quantity(amount) of air is determined by position of a throttle valve which is fixed by the gauge of position of a throttle valve and a rotary speed of the shaft of the engine.

Extreme positions of the gauge of position of a throttle valve correspond to a no-load conditions or an overall load. Their definition is of great importance for enrichment at an overall load or for switching-off of a pull-rod. The signal of position of a throttle valve estimates required power and ??? determines a supply of necessary amount of fuel.


Fig. 1. The circuit of system of the central injection ??????:

1-fuel tank;
2-electric fuel pump;
3 - a fuel filter;
4 - a pressure regulator of fuel;
5-????????????? the valve;
6-temperature detector of air;
7-electronic control package (???);
8 - the executive gear of a throttle valve;
9-potentiometer of a throttle valve;
10-valve of a blowdown of an adsorber;
11 - an adsorber;
12 - the L-gauge;
13 - a temperature detector ???. Liquids;
14 - the allocator of ignition;
15 - the accumulator battery;
16 - an ignition lock;
17-relay block;
18-heating of an intake manifold;
19 - an air filter;
20 - receipt of external air;
21 - an intake manifold of a working blend

The temperature of the engine renders essential influence on required quantity(amount) of fuel. The temperature gauge is built - in system of circulation ???. The liquid are given out also with a signal in ???.

Time of a presence in an open condition electromagnetic ?????????????? the valve depends on a battery voltage. To compensate delay of operation of the valve, ??? takes into account fluctuations of a pressure(voltage) of a network by means of change of time of injection of fuel.


Processing of parameters

??? processes entrance signals and time of injection of fuel expects on their basis. ??? contains the microcomputer with the block of programs and memories, and also the analogovo-discrete converter. For ??? a critical parameters for calculation of time of injection are the signal of a corner of position of a throttle valve and a signal of a rotary speed. On their basis the program of steering which totals 225 and more reference points for maintenance of completeness of combustion of a working blend at her(it) ????????????????? structure (1:14,7) is constructed. For calculation of time of injection of fuel in intervals between reference points the additional adaptable characteristic field with 64 reference points that allows to compensate specific features of the engine and his(its) systems while in service is entered.

For achievement of formation(education) of a homogeneous blend and its(her) identical distribution (filling) on separate cylinders ????????????? the valve is located in a stream of acting air up to a throttle valve. 

Radial inclined bores of a spray jet create a picture of dispersion on a taper. Dispersion is carried out by means of overlapping reflective dispersion and dispersion due to turbulences. The corner of dispersion of the valve is executed so, that fuel gets directly in a crescent spacing between the case and a throttle valve.


Fig. 2. Hydraulic unit
1 - a pressure regulator of fuel;
2 - a temperature detector of air;
3 - electromagnetic ????????????? the valve;
4 - the case of a throttle valve;
5-throttle valve;
6 - the case of hydraulic unit



Features of working processes on the Automobile the

VAZ - 21214



Cold start-up

For the compensation of pauperization of a working blend connected to cold walls of an intake manifold, and for simplification of start-up of cold engine EBU increases quantity(amount) of submitted fuel by increase of time of injection.


Repeated start-up and work in ????????? a condition

Enrichment of a blend in ????????? a condition provides smoothness of a set of power and optimum power setting at minimal, a fuel consumption.

Steering of a rotary speed on a no-load conditions

The heat controller located in the central block of injection (the executive gear), provides additional opening a throttle valve that provides ???????? to the engine of additional amount of air that results in increase of a fuel consumption and an establishment of a required rotary speed on a no-load conditions.

It occurs due to that the potentiometer of a throttle valve fixes this changed position and thus the constancy of structure of a working blend and toxicity ?? idling are kept.


Partial loading

In a range of partial loadings the system brings a toplivno-air (working) blend into accord when minimal issue ?? is provided.


Overall load

??? receives the information on an overall load from ???????????????????? the gauge of position of a throttle valve. The size of required enrichment of a working blend at an overall load is incorporated in program ??? by duration of injection in view of power setting.



For achievement of favorable transitive characteristics during speedup enrichment of a blend should be carried out. From change of position (a degree of conveyance) ???????????????????? the gauge of position of throttle valve ??? receives the information on speedup and his(its) degree. The size of enrichment depends on temperature of the engine and speed of conveyance of a throttle valve.


Additional functions



By means of a stopping delivery of fuel at an inertial motion essentially it is possible to reduce a fuel consumption and issue of toxic components ?? at movement on crossed and especially mountain, districts.


Restriction of a rotary speed

The supply of fuel stops on a signal with ??? at achievement of as much as possible allowable rotary speed incorporated in the program.


Regulation of a rotary speed of an idle running

deviation(rejection) of a rotary speed of an idle running from given, at instant temperature of the engine. This system does not demand a leaving(care) and provides indemnification of change of parameters of the engine at operation.


?????? - regulations In a design of system replacement of a heat controller with the executive gear which moves a throttle valve is stipulated and submits to the engine the greater or smaller quantity(amount) of air, depending on a


?????? (L) - the gauge 12 established in stream ??, gives out a signal in ??? at an instant deviation(rejection) of structure of a working blend from an optimum parity(ratio) air - fuel. The system of regulation influences for the period of an open condition ?????????????? the valve.

Thus, the quantity(amount) of fuel that provides on all operating modes a parity(ratio) air - fuel only with the minimal deviation(rejection) from optimum is precisely dosed out.




A feed system of the engine - with the central injection of fuel the VAZ - 21214


Fuel from a fuel tank 27 (fig. 3) with the electrogasoline pump 26 moves under pressure on forcing highway 25 in a fuel filter 1 and further in the unit 11 central injections of fuel. The pressure regulator 3 supports a constant a pressure fall on an injection nozzle 9, and surplus of fuel on allocating(removing) highway 24 comes back in a fuel tank 27. The spray jet 9 on a command(team) of electronic control package (???) 29 opens and injects fuel in ????????????? space of the unit 11. ??? 29 forms duration of a pulse of a spray jet depending on power setting and his(its) loadings so that constantly to provide optimum structure of a toplivno-air blend.

Air in the unit 11????????? from an air filter 13. A throttle valve of the unit 11????????? a pedal of an accelerator through sector 10. The controller 29 constantly supervises position of a throttle valve and speed of its(her) movement (speedup, slowdown) through the gauge 14 established on the end of the shaft of a throttle valve. Besides ??? 29 steers an adjuster 8 idle runnings irrespective of position of a throttle valve.

At start-up of the engine when the rotary speed of a bent shaft below minimal, ??? 29 increases duration of pulses of a spray jet 9 for enrichment of a toplivno-air blend, and at start-up of the cold engine in addition through the relay 12 for the certain period includes the electropreheater in an inlet tube 2. To press a pedal of an accelerator during start-up of the engine it is inadmissible. After start-up of the engine duration of pulses of a spray jet 9 is corrected according to the given program depending on the data of the gauge of 4 air temperatures established in the case of an air filter 13, the gauge of 7 temperatures of a cooling fluid and from the gauge 17 absolute pressure which selects managing underpressure on a tube 18 of ?????????????? spaces of the unit 11. The ambassador ???????? the engine the minimal rotary speed of a bent shaft on a no-load conditions is established by an adjuster 8 idle runnings on command(team) ??? 29 depending on loading on the engine (the air conditioner, a heater is included, warmed a rear screen etc.). ??? 29 it is disconnected from steering of an adjuster 8 idle runnings at achievement by the automobile(car) of the certain speed, the information about which acts in the controller from the gauge 22????????.


Fig. 3. A feed system of the engine:
1 - a fuel filter;
2 - an inlet tube with the electropreheater;
3 - a pressure regulator;
4 - a temperature detector of air;
5 - the engine;
6 - an exhaust branch of system of cooling;
7 - a temperature detector of a cooling fluid;
8 - an adjuster of an idle running with the step-by-step engine;
9 spray jet;
10 - sector resulting a throttle valve;
11 - the unit of the central injection of fuel;
12 - the relay of the electropreheater of an inlet tube;
13 - an air filter;
14 - the gauge of position of a throttle valve;
15 - the gauge of concentration of oxygen (L-gauge);
16 - an exhaust manifold;
17 - the gauge of absolute pressure;
18 - a tube of takeoff of underpressure;
19 - a reception tube;
20 - a gear box;
21 - a catalyst converter;
22 - a speed sensor;
23 - a transfer box;
24 - allocating(removing) highway;
25 - forcing highway;
26 - the electrogasoline pump with the gauge of a level of fuel;
27 - a fuel tank;
28 - the relay of the electrogasoline pump;
29 -
30 - an indicating lamp " CHECK ENGINE "

At movement of the automobile(car) on ????????? engine EBU 29 forms duration of pulses of a spray jet 9 depending on the data of the gauge of 15 concentration of oxygen (feedback) established in an exhaust manifold 16.

On a mode of speedup ??? 29 receives a signal ????????? 14 about sharp change of position of a throttle valve and increases a fuel delivery, and on a mode of slowdown (a mode of an engine braking) reduces a fuel delivery down to the full termination(discontinuance) of his(its) submission by the certain period. Besides ??? stops completely a fuel delivery at achievement by the engine of as much as possible allowable rotary speed of a bent shaft in avoidance ?????????? the engine, and also at achievement by the automobile(car) of the maximal speed.

At occurrence of a system malfunction of a feed(meal) in an instrument cluster the indicating lamp " CHECK ENGINE " 30 lights up. Fire of a lamp does not mean, that the engine should be immediately stopped, as ??? has the reserve systems allowing the engine to work almost in a normal mode. Nevertheless, the reason of fire of an indicating lamp should be established at the enterprise of maintenance operation as soon as possible.



System of ignition of the engine - with the central injection of fuel the VAZ - 21214


System of ignition - electronic. It(she) includes the module of ignition 8 (rice 3), the inductive gauge 9, spark plugs 1, high-voltage wires 2 and ??? 21. The module of ignition 8 includes two ignition coils and the switchboard, incorporated in one block. The inductive gauge 9 reads out the data from a specifying disk of a sheave 10 and generates a signal on the module of ignition 8 which develops the basic pulse sent in ??? 21. ??? uses this signal for calculation of position of a bent shaft, frequency of his(its) rotation, a firing point and width of a pulse on a spray jet. Besides ??? constantly corrects a firing point depending on the data, ??????????? on him(it) from temperature detectors of air, absolute pressure and temperatures of a cooling fluid.

At start-up of the engine when the rotary speed of a bent shaft less than 400 rev/min, steers a firing point the module of ignition 8, and after start-up of the engine this function carries out ??? 21. The module of ignition 8 on command(team) ??? 21 gives out a high-voltage pulse on the appropriate spark plugs. In this system of ignition the method of " the fulfilled spark " when the spark simultaneously moves on two spark plugs of those cylinders which buckets at present are in opposite phases on timing periods is applied. So, for example, if the bucket of the first cylinder is in ??? at the end of a timing period of squeeze the bucket of the fourth cylinder is in ??? at the end of a timing period of release. On a spark in a spark plug of the fourth cylinder very insignificant power is used, and the basic power goes on a spark plug of the first cylinder.

Electronic system of ignition - system of high power. Therefore at working engine the contact to elements of system is inadmissible, and also removal of plugs from the accumulator battery is inadmissible. All works in a motor chamber with elements of system of ignition should be carried out(spent) at the switched off ignition and cooled down engine. ??? 21 which is placed in interior on ???????? with legs of the driver, should be constantly pure(clean) and dry. His(its) autocratic removal and disassembly is completely inadmissible.

Fig. 4. System of ignition and a safety system of an environment:

1 - a spark plug;
2 - a high-voltage wire;
3 - a tube of fanning of a crankcase on operating modes of work of the engine; 4, 5 - steam tubes;
6 - a breather of system of fanning of a crankcase;
7 - an adsorber with the electromagnetic valve of a blowdown;
8 - the module of ignition;
9 - the inductive gauge;
10 - a crankshaft pulley with a specifying disk of system of ignition;
11 - a tube of fanning of a crankcase on a no-load conditions of the engine;
12 engine; 13 -
14 - a nipple of fanning of a crankcase on a no-load conditions of the engine;
15 - the unit of the central injection of fuel;
16 - an air filter;
17 - the gauge of concentration of oxygen (L-gauge);
18 - a nipple of a blowdown of an adsorber;
19 - a nipple of fanning of a crankcase on operating modes of the engine;
20 - a catalyst converter;
21 -
???; 22 - the main relay;
23 - the accumulator battery; 24 - a two-way valve;
25, 27 - steam tubes;
26 - the gravitational valve;
28 - a separator; 29, 30 - steam tubes;
31 - a fuel tank.

Safety system of an environment

At work of the engine on a no-load conditions with the minimal rotary speed of a bent shaft when the throttle valve is closed, a crankcase fumes on a tube 11 act in ????????????? space of the unit 15???????????? injection of fuel. On operating modes of work of the engine the throttle valve is open, and a crankcase fumes on a tube 3 are sucked away in an air filter 16. In a tube 3 it is established ????????????? 13, preventing penetration of a flame into a crankcase of the engine in case of failure in his(its) work.

System of reburning of fulfilled gases

Into the given system enter a catalyst converter 20 and the gauge of 17 concentration of oxygen (L-gauge) with ?????????????????, that allows the gauge to reach(achieve) a working temperature faster. The gauge 17 gives out signal ??? 21 about the maintenance(contents) of oxygen in fulfilled gases (??) which in turn corrects structure of a toplivno-air blend up to optimum structure.

The catalyst converter 20 represents the ceramic block made in a metal housing. The ceramic block has set of microports, on which surface ??????? the catalytic structure consisting of platinum, a palladium and ?????.

?? which structure includes such most toxic components as a monoxide carbon (WITH), hydrocarbons (??) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx), contact to catalytic structure and as a result reactions the significant part of toxic components turns to such components, as water (H2?), carbonic gas (??2) and nitrogen (N2).

The given system works regularly in the event that the lead-free fuel is used only. The leaded fuel in short term puts this system out of action as lead clogs microports of the ceramic block, covers a contact area of the L-gauge 17 which starts to give out the incorrect information on surplus of oxygen in ??, and ??? 21 in turn increases width of a pulse of a spray jet. ????????????? can leave out of operation and in case of misses(passings) in system of ignition as in this case pure(clean) fuel will act in ????????????? and the temperature in it(him) sharply will increase, that will cause occurrence of cracks(fractions) in the ceramic block. Therefore constantly it is necessary to watch(keep up) serviceable work of system of ignition and to not suppose faults in its(her) work.

System of catching ????? gasoline

At the idle engine of pair gasoline from a fuel tank 31 on tubes 29 and 30 act in a separator 28 where are in part condensed also a condensate back comes back in a fuel tank. In process of accumulation ????? gasoline they on a tube 27 act in the gravitational valve 26, and from him(it) on a tube 25 in a two-way valve 24 where at the certain pressure open an outlet valve. Further on a tube 4 they act in an adsorber 7 where are absorbed ??????????? (the activated coal).

After start-up of engine EBU 21 includes in an adsorber 7 electromagnetic valve of a blowdown therefore external air ????????????? through ?????????, is sated with pairs gasoline and on a tube 5 acts in ????????????? space of the unit 15 central injections of fuel. In process of the charge of gasoline in a fuel tank 31 underpressure, and external air through an adsorber 7 is created acts on a tube 4 in a two-way valve 24 where opens a back-pressure valve. Further air on a tube 25, the gravitational valve 26, a tube 27, a separator 28 and on tubes 28 and 30 acts in a fuel tank 31. The gravitational valve 26 prevents escape of gasoline from a fuel tank in system at overturning the automobile(car) in case of road and transport incident.

Electrical equipment


On rice 5 the fragment of the basic circuit of an electrical equipment of the automobile(car) the VAZ - 21214 is given. Other positions are similar to positions of the basic circuit of an electrical equipment of the automobile(car) the VAZ - 2121 (21213). The potentiometer 99 established on the top booster ????? ???????, corrects a firing point only at the enterprise of maintenance operation.

Fig. 5. The basic circuit of an electrical equipment (fragment):

90 - the main relay;
91 - the relay of the electropreheater of an inlet tube;
92 - the electropreheater of an inlet tube;
93 - the inductive gauge; 94 - the module of ignition;
95 - the gauge of concentration of oxygen;
96 - a speed sensor;
97 -
???????????????? the valve of a blowdown of an adsorber;
98 - a temperature detector of air;
99 - the potentiometer (octane - corrector);
100 - the gauge of absolute pressure;
101 - the gauge of position of a throttle valve;
102 - a temperature detector of a cooling fluid;
103 -
???; 104 - the air conditioner;
105 - the switch of the air conditioner;
1?6 - an adjuster of an idle running;
101 - a pad of preliminary treatment; 108 - a spray jet;
109 -
?????????????????; 110 - the relay ??????????????????;
111 - an indicating lamp " CHECK ENGINE "; And - to a tachometer





The brief user manual of the automobile(car) with system of injection of fuel


Automobiles(cars) with injection for Europe and Russia among themselves differ structurally a little.
In systems of injection of the automobiles(cars) intended for Europe, usually there is a feedback. The feedback assumes presence of a lambda probe (the gauge of concentration of oxygen) in a reception tube of an exhaust system and a catalyst converter of fulfilled gases. The computer which oders about system, under indications of a lambda probe defines(determines) structure of fulfilled gases and corrects a fuel delivery in cylinders that the ambassador
?????????????? in an exhaust there was a minimum of harmful substances. Similar systems are designed for a lead-free fuel which high octane number, as is known, is reached(achieved) numerous ?????????, instead of by addition of antidetonation additive compounds, more often ???????????????.
The most remarkable feature of systems with a feedback - ability: "
?????????????" while in service to adapt for the concrete automobile(car), a condition of a power train and the engine, "writing down" corrections in the block of self-training - separate "cell" of electronic "brain". And all changes keep in memory until the system will not be disconnected. For this reason on the automobiles(cars) equipped with injection of fuel with a feedback, there is no without special necessity to disconnect the accumulator battery (for example, for the period of night parking). After each such switching-off the system should "study" anew. Certainly, you start up the engine, and can go, probably, at all not having noticed anything unusual, but some time system "will get used" to the automobile(car) and to work not optimum. This process can borrow(occupy) two hours and more, depending on power setting.
Other variant
?????????? the injection, designed on the Russian norms of toxicity and the Russian PETROLEUM PRODUCTS (without a lambda probe and ?????????????? which are afraid of a leaded fuel), unfortunately, is deprived a feedback and ability of self-training.
Driving on "
??????????" to the machine in comparison with carburettor has pleasant features: easy start-up, absence ??????? and necessities of the control of it(him), absence of a failure at driving on ??????????? the engine etc., also does not demand special skills from the driver. Other business - features of start-up of the cold engine. We shall remind, that, getting(starting) in the morning the motor, it is not necessary to touch a pedal of an accelerator. The electronic control system itself will define(determine), how many fuel is required to it(him), and "will deliver" it(him) in combustion chambers in the necessary quantity(amount). And only at temperature-20 also slightly it is below possible to press a pedal of an accelerator (approximately 10-15 % of its(her) course). But it yet all . systems of injection with a feedback are adjusted (experts speak "?????????????") on cold start-up with winter gasoline, which at us - the big rarity. It(he) differs from years(summer) more a high pressure sated ????? (not below 600 mm of a mercury column), differently - evaporates almost twice faster. Therefore there is no sense to demand from the motor of the frozen automobile(car) that it(he) was started up on years(summer) gasoline from the first attempt. It is better to twist a starter motor of 3-5 seconds then to wait for seconds 30-40 (for this time pairs even at years(summer) gasoline are formed) and only after that to start up the engine.
Practically right after start-up it is possible to begin movement - injection allows to go without "failures" even on
??????????? the engine. If are going and to act - take care of a good winter oil for the engine.
Domestic gasoline, as a rule, contains a plenty of mechanical impurity. Easier speaking, dirty gasoline at us, moreover sometimes and with water. Refuelling by him(it) is fraught first of all with failure of the gasoline pump. Therefore, if not want to reduce his(its) life, just in case it is better to fill in gasoline through an additional fine grid (even as in
???????). In doubtful cases use the preparations "connecting" water in fuel which nowadays are on sale.
We more than once advised motorists, what details of those or other machines are useful for grasping with ourselves in a long journey. For automobiles(cars) with injection is a gauge of position of a bent shaft and the electrogasoline pump. Refusal of any other gauge by system is parried - she(it) passes in emergency operation, working (not the best, certainly, in the image) under indications of other gauges that allows to reach servicing deport the course. And given up gauge of position
????????? ????????????? the machine completely.
Certainly, it is not necessary to refuse the machine in regular service: is duly to replace air and fuel filters, oil in a crankcase of the engine, the candles which have se
rved. By the way, for motors with injection from domestic candles ?17???? are intended only. From import it is possible to use, for example, BOSCH W7DC, CHAMPIONRN9YCC4 or RN9YC4. It is better to go by the same import, but hardly "hot" in the winter: BOSCH W6DC, and also AC DELCO R43XLS. do not overlook, that the spacing between electrodes should be 1 mm.





Values of codes of failures of system of a self-diagnosis of injection GM



Preliminary treatment of an engine management system with electronic injection of fuel is simple enough



Electronic control package (???) carries out a constant self-diagnosis. At detection of failure by him(it), its(her) code will be worn out in memory and the indicating lamp " CHECK ENGINE " on the panel of devices is included.

At inclusion of ignition and the idle engine the indicating lamp should lights up, that testifies to serviceability of a bulb and system of a self-diagnosis.

After a starting engine operation the lamp is switched off.

If the lamp continues to burn, it means, that the system of a self-diagnosis has found out failure. If failure withdraws, in most cases in 10 seconds the lamp is switched off, but the diagnostic code is kept in memory ???.

At initialization of a mode of a conclusion of codes of a self-diagnosis by a lamp " CHECK ENGINE " it is displayed ??????????? ??? two-digit error codes (failures) from 12 up to 99.

For initialization of a mode of distribution of codes of preliminary treatment it is necessary to close at the switched off ignition among themselves contact pieces "?" and "?" a diagnostic socket or contact piece "?" on the case of the automobile(car) and to include ignition not starting the engine.

The pad of preliminary treatment (see a photo) is on the left panel ??????? in a passenger compartment.


Photo. A pad of preliminary treatment:
And - conclusion of earthing(grounding) at testing; an in - conclusion of a command signal of testing; a C-conclusion of preliminary treatment of an electric fuel pump; D-T.C.C. (can not be); an E-conclusion of a signal of speed of data exchange; a m - conclusion of the port of the consecutive data

Code of failure ????????????? a lamp " CHECK ENGINE " in a consecutive kind - all over again the senior category, then (after a pause) younger.
For example:
Flash, pause, flash, flash will correspond(meet) to a code "
12" - serviceability of a self-diagnosis. With which a series of codes of failures should begin.

The lamp " CHECK ENGINE " should give out a code "12 three times in succession with 1-2 second pause between recurrences. This code speaks that the system of preliminary treatment is efficient. After distribution of a code "12" lamp " CHECK ENGINE " will give out all stored(kept) in memory of the memory device of a control package codes of failures if they are. She(it) repeats each of them on three times. Codes of failures will be given out since the least code of failure.




If in the beginning of the test the code "12" is not deduced, failure in itself ??? means.

13 - there is no signal of a lambda probe (the gauge of oxygen);
14 - a low level of a signal of a temperature detector of a cooling fluid;
15 - a high level of a signal of a temperature detector of a cooling fluid;
21 - a high level of a signal of the gauge of position of a throttle valve;
22 - a low level of a signal of the gauge of position of a throttle valve;
23 - a high level of a signal of a temperature detector of soaked up air;
24 - there is no signal of a speed sensor of the automobile(car);
25 - a low level of a signal of a temperature detector of soaked up air;
33 - a high level of a signal of the gauge of underpressure in the inlet pipe duct (???. Pressure);
34 - a low level of a signal of the gauge of underpressure in the inlet pipe duct (???. Pressure);
35 - a mistake of a signal of a rotary speed of a bent shaft on a no-load conditions;
42 - failure of a circuit of steering of ignition;
44 - the impoverished structure of a blend;
45 - the enriched structure of a blend;
51 - a mistake of the memory device;
53 - the overestimated source voltage of system;
54 - a mistake of the octane - corrector;
55 - a mistake of an electronic control package.


Low level an insufficient pressure(voltage), a high level the overestimated pressure(voltage).

At failure of some gauges the system automatically passes to emergency operation of work and the automobile(car) keeps ability to move. However it can result in some deterioration ??????? qualities of the automobile(car) and to increase of a fuel consumption.

For example, in default a temperature detector of a cooling fluid (the code 14,15) are worsened starting qualities of the cold engine, and at ????????? the motor of infringements in work is not observed. At damage of a voltage adjuster to system of an electrical equipment (a code 53) it is necessary to move with low frequency of a bent shaft to not put out of action a control package.

And at damage of the gauge of position of a bent shaft start-up of the engine is impossible.

What to do(make) if system of a self-diagnosis has found out failure, either the engine to not be got(started), or correctness of his(its) work causes doubts... >






Preliminary treatment of an engine management system with electronic injection of fuel



If the system of a self-diagnosis has found out failure, either the engine to not be got(started), or correctness of his(its) work causes doubts

After reading a code of failure it is necessary to check up electric circuits of the appropriate gauges and gauges. If circuits and the gauge are serviceable, means, the control package is faulty.

But it is not necessary to blame for all electronics. It is not necessary to forget, that behind all this electronics and gauges there is a usual engine.

If candles, in norm a compression, in norm ??????????????? in a final path (there is no potato in an exhaust pipe) are serviceable, spacings in ????????????????????? the gear are adjusted, there are no escapes of underpressure (an air inflow in system of an intake), is absent ??????????????? or corking of a fuel system, at last you are sure in high quality of fuel, and the engine to not be started, the sequence of check should be following:

  • To check up a diagnostic circuit. For this purpose to include ignition, the engine to not start up. If the lamp " CHECK ENGINE " does not burn to check up the appropriate safety lock in the block of safety locks, a lamp, a cartridge, the sixth contact piece in a white socket of an instrument cluster and the black-and-white wire connecting this contact piece to conclusion ?5 of a control package. If in this circuit there are no failures to check up presence of a pressure(voltage) +12 In on conclusions of control package ?1, ?16, ?6 if the pressure(voltage) is - to check up contact piece to weight of conclusions DI, ?12. If contact piece to weight is - the control package is faulty;
  • If the lamp " CHECK ENGINE " burns, ?????????? conclusions And and In pads of preliminary treatment, if the lamp does not give out a code 12 three times in succession to check up an earth fault of a circuit of the lamp described above. For this purpose it is necessary to switch off ignition to remove sockets from a control package and again to include ignition, if the lamp burns to remove an earth fault. If is not present to switch off ignition, to insert sockets into a control package, to include ignition and to close conclusion ?9 to weight if the lamp gives out a code 12 it is damaged(injured) or the black-and-white wire connecting a conclusion In pads of preliminary treatment with conclusion ?9 of a control package or a brown wire, connecting conclusion And pads of preliminary treatment and conclusion ?12 of a control package with weight. If the lamp has not lit up to check up Correctness of setting of the memory device of a control package, if it is established correctly to replace it(him) or a control package;
  • If after distribution of codes of failures and their elimination the engine all the same is not started up or codes of failures is not given out, it is necessary to check up a circuit ?????????????, work of a spray jet and its(her) circuit of steering.
  • Check of a circuit ????????????? should be carried out(spent) at a sufficient level of fuel in a tank (the lamp of a reserve on a fuel indicator does not burn) and a pure(clean) fuel filter. Check of a circuit ????????????? should be begun with check of work of the pump, for this purpose it is necessary to include ignition, the pump should join and work 2 with if it does not occur to check up a circuit of the current supply of the pump, sockets of tips and the relay of the pump if the pressure(voltage) on conclusions of a socket of the pump is present to replace the pump (the pump is in a tank together with a fuel indicator);
  • If the pump works, it is necessary to check up pressure of fuel in system for what to connect the manometer to the union of the control of pressure of fuel which is located in an impellent chamber in a highway of a fuel delivery between a fuel filter and the unit of the central injection and to include ignition. In an operating time of the pump pressure should be within the limits of 0,19-0,21 ???. After deenergizing the pump through 2 about pressure it should be stabilized and should not fall. If pressure falls, through 15 with again it is necessary to include ignition and after a stop of the pump to press a fuel hose between the union and the module of the central injection. If pressure does not decrease, either the pipe duct or his(its) joints ???????????? or is faulty a pressure regulator with which it is necessary to replace. If pressure still falls, it is necessary to repeat the operation described above but to press a hose between the union and a fuel tank. Stabilization of pressure specifies on ??????????????? ????????? highways;
  • If pressure is lower 0,19 ??? it is necessary to connect conclusion C of a diagnostic pad to plus of the accumulator battery (thus the pump will work constantly) and to check up a highway on presence of escapes and work of a pressure regulator as it is described above and also to check up a condition and reliability of joints of a circuit of the current supply of the pump;
  • If pressure is higher 0,21 ??? it is necessary to check up a highway a plum, for this purpose to disconnect a rubber tube of a drain highway from metal and to insert a rubber tube into technological capacity. To include the pump if pressure in norm, means, the highway a plum has got littered, if pressure still is higher 0,21 ??? to check up a drain highway on a site from the module of the central injection up to a point of joint of a highway if a highway in norm, it is necessary to replace a pressure regulator. Check of a spray jet of injection: it is necessary to disconnect the tip of a spray jet and to check up presence of a source voltage on conclusions of a socket of a spray jet, the pressure(voltage) should be on both conclusions if on any conclusion of it(him) is not present, it is necessary to check up an electric circuit and an earth fault of conclusions D16, D9, D10 a control package. Resistance between conclusions D9 and D10 a wiring harness should be less than 1 Ohm. At ????????????? a bent shaft a starter motor on a rozovo-black wire should be a dc voltage +12 In, and on a blue wire of a socket there should be pulses of a pressure(voltage). If pulses are, the spray jet or a ring gasket is faulty. It is necessary to replace faulty details;
  • If pulses are, it is necessary to check up resistance of a winding of a spray jet which should be within the limits of 1,51-1,53 0?. If resistance in norm, is necessary ?????? a socket on a spray jet and, scrolling a starter motor the bent shaft to be convinced, that a spray jet ??????????? fuel (for this purpose it is necessary to remove(take off) a cover of an air filter). If it does not occur, it is necessary to replace a spray jet.


The gauge of position of a throttle valve


Catalogue number (VAZ) - 2112-1148200 (Sheet ?341)

The gauge of position of a throttle valve.


The Gauge of position of a throttle valve is established sideways on the case of a throttle valve opposite to sector of an operating lever by a throttle valve (from the opposite party(side) of the unit). His(its) function consists in definition of the current position of a throttle valve and drive of this information to an electronic control package. The data on position of a throttle valve are necessary ??? for calculation of signals (pulses) of steering by a spray jet...



At rotation of a throttle valve in reply to movement of a pedal of an accelerator the operating lever a throttle valve transfers the rotary movement to the gauge of position of a throttle valve. Thus there is a change of a pressure(voltage) of a target signal of the gauge. This signal acts in a control package for processing. ??? uses quickly growing pressure(voltage) of a signal of the gauge as the certificate on growing need(requirement) of a fuel delivery and as a command(team) on increase of quantity(amount) of managing pulses of injection of a spray jet. It similarly to function of the accelerating pump in the carburetor.

In described system of injection it is the basic signal on which grounding the quantity(amount) of fuel necessary for the engine on the given operating mode pays off. In all range of partial loadings the system of injection should prepare ???????????????? a blend of identical structure (on 14,7 kg of air - 1 kg of fuel). Such structure of a blend refers to ?????????????????. Quantity(amount) of air; acting in the engine, depends on position of a throttle valve. Hence, the corner on which she(it) is revolved, can to characterize quantity(amount) of air which has acted(arrived) in the engine with the certain degree of accuracy. The varied pressure(voltage) from the potentiometer will correspond(meet) to an angle of rotation of a throttle valve.

Besides the control package on signals from the gauge distinguishes final positions of a throttle valve. When ?????????? ???????? it is closed, ???????????????? the blend is enriched (the fuel delivery) on a no-load conditions is increased or the fuel delivery on a mode of a compulsory idle running stops and renews. When the throttle valve is completely open, ???????????????? the blend is enriched on a mode of full power.

The gauge represents the resistor (potentiometer), one of which conclusions is connected to a basic pressure(voltage) 5 In from an electronic control package, and the second - with "weight" ???. The third wire connects mobile contact piece of the gauge with ???, that allows an electronic control package to define(determine) a pressure(voltage) of a target signal of the gauge.

At conveyance of a throttle (movement of a pedal of an accelerator) the target signal from mobile contact piece of the gauge changes. At the closed position of a throttle valve the target signal of the gauge is lower 1.25 In. At opening a throttle valve the target signal grows, and at completely open throttle the output voltage should be higher


4 In.

By tracking value of an output voltage of the gauge the electronic control package can define(determine) the current position of a throttle valve (set by the driver). By tracking change of pressure(voltage) ??? can define(determine) process of opening or closing of a throttle. Failure or a poor contact of the gauge of position of a throttle valve can cause uncontrollable injection of fuel by a spray jet and instability of an idle running of that ??? will expect ????????????? recognizing that a throttle moves.

At occurrence of failure of circuits of the gauge of position of throttle valve ??? through certain time will bring in the memory its(her) code and (a code 21 or 22) will include an indicating lamp " CHECK ENGINE ", signalling about presence of failure. Thus ??? will calculate "emergency" given positions of a throttle valve on a rotary speed of a bent shaft.

It is necessary to remember, that these codes specify failure in a circuit, therefore for correct repair by elimination of failure of a wiring or by replacement of the gauge it is necessary to use a chart of preliminary treatment properly.

The gauge of position of a throttle valve is not adjusted. The electronic control package uses a signal of the lowest pressure(voltage) on a no-load conditions as a reference point (0 % of a throttle) and consequently any resetting it is not required.






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